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Education & Training

Summer Academy For Global Privacy Law 2022

Engineering the data regulation(s) in an age of reform


BPH Privacy & Data Protection

Doctoral Seminars


Visiting Scholars Programme


Meet the Author Series


Brussels Privacy Symposium


Data Protection In the World Series


Enforcing Europe Series 2


Data Sustainability Series


Ad-Hoc Events


Working Papers

Data Protection & Privacy


Workshop Summaries

From BPH Events




Data Protection in Humanitarian Action



The International Observatory on Vulnerable People In data protection


Disclaimer: The resources are arranged per thematic sections to facilitate the consultation. However, we are aware of the intersections and overlaps thereof. We are also aware that pre-identifying categories of vulnerable people in data processing is not possible, vulnerability being a largely contextual and elusive concept. We are not claiming to be exhaustive, but to initiate a discussion.

Do you have any suggestions as to how improve the repository? Have you come across any resource that should be included in the repository? Contact us.


- Academic writings

Crepax , T., & Tobias Mühlberg, J. (2022). Upgrading the protection of children from manipulative and addictive strategies in online games: Legal and technical solutions beyond privacy regulation. The International Review of Information Ethics, 31(1). https://doi.org/10.29173/irie480

Crepax , T. et al. (2022). Information technologies exposing children to privacy risks: Domains and children-specific technical controls. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 82(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csi.2022.103624

Demetzou, K. L., Böck, L. & and O. Hanteer, O. (2018). Smart bears don’t talk to strangers: Analysing privacy concerns and technical solutions in smart toys for children. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018, 2018, pp. 1-7, https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2018.0005 

Dolan, J. (2022). Fundamentals for a Child-Oriented Approach to Data Processing
European Data Protection Law Review, 8 (1), 7-13 https://doi.org/10.21552/edpl/2022/1/4

Grimes, S. M. (2022). The Politics of Children’s Privacy, European Data Protection Law Review, 8 (1), 14-18 https://doi.org/10.21552/edpl/2022/1/5

Lievens, E van der Hof, S., Ton Liefaard, T., Verdoodt, V.,  Milkaite, I., & Hannema, T. (2019).  ‘Submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in View of Their Intention to Draft a General Comment on Children’s Rights in Relation to the Digital Environment. The Child Right to Protection against Economic Exploitation in the Digital World

Macenaite, M. (2017). From universal towards child-specific protection of the right to privacy online: Dilemmas in the EU General Data Protection Regulation. New Media & Society19(5), 765-779 https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444816686327

Milkaite, I., & Lievens, E. (2020). Child-Friendly Transparency of Data Processing in the EU: From Legal Requirements to Platform Policies. Journal of Children and Media 14 (1), 5-21 .https://doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2019.1701055

Milkaite, I., & Lievens, E. (2018) Towards a Better Protection of Children’s Personal Data Collected by Connected Toys and DevicesTowards a Better Protection of Children’s Personal Data Collected by Connected Toys and Devices. (Digital Freedom Fund) https://digitalfreedomfund.org/towards-a-better-protection-of-childrens-personal-data-collected-by-connected-toys-and-devices/

Milkaite, I., & Lievens, E. (2010). Children’s Rights to Privacy and Data Protection around the World: Challenges in the Digital Realm. European Journal of Law and Technology 10(1). https://ejlt.org/index.php/ejlt/article/view/674/912

Milkaite, I., & Lievens, E. (2019). The GDPR child’s age of consent for data processing across the EU – one year later (July 2019) https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/8621651 Ingrida

Milkaite, I., & Lievens, E. (2019). The internet of toys: playing games with children’s data? In G. Mascheroni & D. Holloway (Eds.), The internet of toys: practices, affordances and the political economy of children’s smart play (pp. 285–305). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-10898-4_14

Milkaite, I., Verdoodt, V., Martens, H. & Lievens, E.Ingrida Milkaite, Valerie Verdoodt, Hans Martens, Eva Lievens, (2017) The General Data Protection Regulation and Children’s Rights: Questions and Answers for Legislators, DPAs, Industry, Education, Stakeholders and Civil Society. Roundtable Report  

Nogueira da Gama, G. C. (2020). Human Rights Challenges in Brazil: Children and Vulnerable Persons. British Journal of American Legal Studies (9)3, 461-473 https://doi.org/10.2478/bjals-2020-0010

Pangrazio, L., & Selwyn, N. (2018). “It’s not like it’s life or death or whatever”: Young people’s understandings of social media data. Social Media+ Society4(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305118787808

Piasecki, S., & Chen, J. (2022). Complying with the GDPR when vulnerable people use smart devices. International Data Privacy Law. https://doi.org/10.1093/idpl/ipac001  

Shade, L. R., & Singh, R. (2016). “Honestly, we’re not spying on kids”: School surveillance of young people’s social media. Social Media+ Society, 2(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305116680005

van der Hof, S., Lievens, E., & Milkaite, I. (2019). The protection of children’s personal data in a data-driven world : a closer look at the GDPR from a children’s rights perspective. In T. Liefaard, S. Rap, & P. Rodrigues (Eds.), Monitoring children’s rights in the Netherlands : 30 years of the UN convention on the rights of the child (pp. 77–123). Leiden University Press.

van der Hof, S., Lievens, E., Milkaite, I., Verdoodt, V., Hannema, T., & Liefaard, T. (2020). The child’s right to protection against economic exploitation in the digital world. International Journal of Children’s Rights, 28(4), 833–859. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718182-28040003

van der Hof, S., & Ouburg, S. (2022). “We Take Your Word For It” — A Review of Methods of Age Verification and Parental Consent in Digital Services, European Data Protection Law Review 8(1), 61 – 72. https://doi.org/10.21552/edpl/2022/1/10

- NGO Reports & Articles

- Data Protection Authorities' Guidance

ICO (Information Commissioner’s Office) (September 2020). Children’s code – Age appropriate design: a code of practice for online services https://ico.org.uk/for-organisations/guide-to-data-protection/ico-codes-of-practice/age-appropriate-design-a-code-of-practice-for-online-services/

Irish DPC (Data Protection Commission) (December 2021). The Fundamentals for a Child-Oriented Approach to Data Processing. https://www.dataprotection.ie/en/dpc-guidance/fundamentals-child-oriented-approach-data-processing

- Laws

- Case Law

European Court of Human Rights

Gaskin v. The United Kingdom (Plenary) 10454/83  1989 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-57491

McMichael v. The United Kingdom (Chamber) 16424/90 1995 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-57923

M.G. v. The United Kingdom (Second Section) 39393/98 2002 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-60642

Tsourlakis v. Greece (First Section) 50796/07 2009 Official Language in French: https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-95044 Unofficial English Translation: In pp. 153-154 https://rm.coe.int/new-caselaw-06-2021/1680a2fc58

Godelli v. Italy (Second Section) 33783/09 2012 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-113460

E.S. v. Sweden (First Section) 34209/96 2002 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-60564

Bogomovola v. Russia (Third Section) 13812/09 2017 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-174420

Omorefe v. Spain (Third Section) 69339/16 2020 Official Language in French: https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-203179 Unofficial English Translation: In pp. 374-376 https://rm.coe.int/new-caselaw-06-2021/1680a2fc58

- Policy documents

Council of Europe, Recommendation CM/Rec(2018)7 of the Committee of Ministers, ‘Guidelines to Respect, protect and fulfil the rights of the child in the digital environment’, https://rm.coe.int/guidelines-to-respect-protect-and-fulfil-the-rights-of-the-child-in-th/16808d881a 

- Global Developments

Witzleb, N., Paterson, M., Wilson-Otto, J., Tolkin-Rosen, G., Marks, M. (2020). Privacy risks and harms for children and other vulnerable groups in the online environment. https://www.oaic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/11136/Report-Privacy-risks-and-harms-for-children-and-other-vulnerable-groups-online.pdf

INAI (Instituto Nacional de Transparencia, Accesso a la Información y Protección de Datos Personales) (Octubre 2020). Código de buenas prácticas para orientar el tratamiento en línea de datos personales de niñas, niños y adolescentes.  https://home.inai.org.mx/wp-content/documentos/pdpdoctosguias/codigobuenaspracticasnna.pdf

- Others