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Summer Academy For Global Privacy Law 2022

Engineering the data regulation(s) in an age of reform


BPH Privacy & Data Protection

Doctoral Seminars


Visiting Scholars Programme


Meet the Author Series


Brussels Privacy Symposium


Data Protection In the World Series


Enforcing Europe Series 2


Data Sustainability Series


Ad-Hoc Events


Working Papers

Data Protection & Privacy


Workshop Summaries

From BPH Events




Data Protection in Humanitarian Action



The International Observatory on Vulnerable People In data protection


Disclaimer: The resources are arranged per thematic sections to facilitate the consultation. However, we are aware of the intersections and overlaps thereof. And that AI is generating new categories outside the traditional ones. We are also aware that pre-identifying categories of vulnerable people in data processing is not possible, vulnerability being a largely contextual and elusive concept. We are not claiming to be exhaustive, but to initiate a discussion.

Do you have any suggestions as to how improve the repository? Have you come across any resource that should be included in the repository? Contact us.


- Academic writings

Baker, S. M., Gentry, J. W., & Rittenburg, T. L. (2005). Building understanding of the domain of consumer vulnerability. Journal of macromarketing25(2), 128-139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0276146705280622

Benjamin, A. H. V., Marques, C. L. & Bessa L. R. (2009). Manual de Direito do Consumidor. 2. ed. São Paulo: Revista dos Tribunais, p. 73

Bright, L. F., Logan, K., & Lim, H. S. (2022). Social Media Fatigue and Privacy: An Exploration of Antecedents to Consumers’ Concerns regarding the Security of Their Personal Information on Social Media Platforms. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15252019.2022.2051097

Dāvida, Z. (2020). Consumer rights and personalised advertising: Risk of exploiting consumer vulnerabilities. https://doi.org/10.25143/socr.16.2020.1.076-086

Helberger, N., Borgesius, F. Z., & Reyna, A. (2017). The perfect match? A closer look at the relationship between EU consumer law and data protection law. Common Market Law Review54(5). https://doi.org/10.54648/cola2017118

Kawaf, F., Montgomery, A., & Thuemmler, M. (2023). Unpacking the privacy–personalisation paradox in GDPR-2018 regulated environments: consumer vulnerability and the curse of personalisation. Information Technology & People. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITP-04-2022-0275Liyanaarachchi, G., Deshpande, S., & Weaven, S. (2020). Market-oriented corporate digital responsibility to manage data vulnerability in online banking. International Journal of Bank Marketing https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-06-2020-0313

Ioannidou, I., & Sklavos, N. (2021). On general data protection regulation vulnerabilities and privacy issues, for wearable devices and fitness tracking applications. Cryptography5(4), 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography5040029

Marques, C.L., Pfeiffer, R.A.C. (2022). Dissemination of Consumer Law and Policy in Brazil: The Impact of EU Law. J Consum Policy 45, 27–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10603-022-09503-w

Martin, K. D., Borah, A., & Palmatier, R. W. (2017). Data privacy: Effects on customer and firm performance. Journal of Marketing81(1), 36-58. https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.15.0497

Martin, K. D., & Murphy, P. E. (2017). The role of data privacy in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science45, 135-155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-016-0495-4

Mendes, L. S., & Mattiuzzo, M. (2022). Algorithms and discrimination: the case of credit scoring in Brazil. In Personality and Data Protection Rights on the Internet: Brazilian and German Approaches (pp. 407-443). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Sartor, G. (2020). New Aspects And Challenges In Consumer Protection – Digital Services And Artificial Intelligence, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies Directorate-General for Internal Policies https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2020/648790/IPOL_STU(2020)648790_EN.pdf

Scott, B. (2023). Protecting Vulnerable Consumers Within the Metaverse. In Influencer Marketing Applications Within the Metaverse (pp. 117-131). IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-8898-0.ch008

Shi, H. Y., Jing, F. J., Yang, Y., & Nguyen, B. (2017). The concept of consumer vulnerability: Scale development and validation. International Journal of Consumer Studies41(6), 769-777. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcs.12390

Smith, N. C., & Cooper-Martin, E. (1997). Ethics and target marketing: The role of product harm and consumer vulnerability. Journal of marketing61(3), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222429970610030

Stewart, L. (2019). Big data discrimination: Maintaining protection of individual privacy without disincentivizing businesses’ use of biometric data to enhance security. BCL Rev.60, 349.van Ooijen, I., & Vrabec, H. U. (2019). Does the GDPR enhance consumers’ control over personal data? An analysis from a behavioural perspective. Journal of consumer policy42(1), 91-107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10603-018-9399-7

Wang, E. S. T. (2019). Role of privacy legislations and online business brand image in consumer perceptions of online privacy risk. Journal of theoretical and applied electronic commerce research14(2), 59-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-18762019000200106   



- NGO Reports & Articles

BEUC (2021). EU Consumer Protection 2.0. Structural asymmetries in digital consumer markets https://www.beuc.eu/publications/beuc-x-2021-018_eu_consumer_protection.0_0.pdf

BEUC (2021). EU Consumer Protection 2.0. The Regulatory Gap: Consumer protection in the digital economy


BEUC (2022). EU Consumer Protection 2.0. Protecting fairness and consumer choice in a digital economy https://www.beuc.eu/publications/eu-consumer-protection-20-protecting-fairness-and-consumer-choice-digital-economy/html

- Data Protection Authorities' Guidance

European Data Protection Board  Guidelines 8/2020 on the targeting of social media users https://edpb.europa.eu/system/files/2021-04/edpb_guidelines_082020_on_the_targeting_of_social_media_users_en.pdf

European Data Protection Board Guidelines 2/2019 on the processing of personal data under Article 6(1)(b) GDPR in the context of the provision of online services to data subjects https://edpb.europa.eu/sites/default/files/files/file1/edpb_guidelines-art_6-1-b-adopted_after_public_consultation_en.pdf

- Laws

- Case Law

European Court of Human Rights

Breyer v. Germany (Fifth Section) 50001/12 2020 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-200442

Court of Justice of the European Union

Maximilian Schrems v. Facebook Ireland Limited (Third Chamber) ECLI:EU:C:2018:37 2018 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:62016CJ0498&from=GA

Fashion ID GmbH & Co. KG v. Verbraucherzentrale NRW eV (Second Chamber) ECLI:EU:C:2018:1039 2018 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:62017CC0040&from=EN

Bundesverband der Verbraucherzentralen und Verbraucherverbände — Verbraucherzentrale Bundesverband eV v. Planet49 GmbH (Grand Chamber) ECLI:EU:C:2019:801 2019 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:62017CJ0673&from=EN

- National Courts

Brazilian Superior Court of Justice, STJ, Recurso Especial n. 1.061.500/RS, julg. em 04/11/2008 

- Policy documents

- Global Developments

- Others