The International Observatory on Vulnerable People In data protection
Disclaimer: The resources are arranged per thematic sections to facilitate the consultation. However, we are aware of the intersections and overlaps thereof. And that AI is generating new categories outside the traditional ones. We are also aware that pre-identifying categories of vulnerable people in data processing is not possible, vulnerability being a largely contextual and elusive concept. We are not claiming to be exhaustive, but to initiate a discussion.
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Ethnic and religious minorities & indigenous people
- Academic writings
Bottini Filho, L. (2021). Covid-19 Through Brazilian Courts: The Deserving and the Undeserving Vulnerable. German Law Journal, 22(6), 1098-1114, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1017/glj.2021.55
De Schutter, O., & Ringelheim, J. (2008). Ethnic profiling: A rising challenge for European human rights law. The Modern Law Review, 71(3), 358-384. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2230.2008.00697.x
Djordjević, L. (2020). Introduction: Ethnic Data and Minority Protection 1. The relevance of ethnic data. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, 19(2), 1-13. https://www.ecmi.de/fileadmin/redakteure/publications/JEMIE_Datensätze/Jemie_2020_2/01_Introduction_Djordjevic.pdf
Kukutai, T. & Taylor J. (Eds). Indigenous data sovereignty: Toward an agenda. Canberra: ANU Press, 2016.
Moodley, K., & Kleinsmidt, A. Allegations of misuse of African DNA in the UK: Will data protection legislation in South Africa be sufficient to prevent a recurrence? 2021; 21 (3): 125–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/dewb.12277
Pap, A. L. (2020). Ethnic Data Protection and Collection: The Case of Hungary. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues, 19(14). https://www.ecmi.de/fileadmin/redakteure/publications/JEMIE_Datensätze/Jemie_2020_2/02_Pap.pdf
Ringelheim, J., & De Schutter, O. (2009). The processing of racial and ethnic data in antidiscrimination policies: Reconciling the promotion of equality with privacy rights. Brussels, Bruylant. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1552321
Simon, P. (2007). “Ethnic” statistics and data protection in the Council of Europe countries: study report. https://searchlibrary.ohchr.org/record/8279
Zimmermann, M. (2001). Ethnic monitoring and data protection: The European context. Central European University Press.
- NGO Reports & Articles
EDRi (2021) Romani rights and biometric mass surveillance. https://edri.org/our-work/roma-rights-and-biometric-mass-surveillance/
IWGIA (2021) The Indigenous World 2021: Indigenous Data Sovereignty. https://www.iwgia.org/en/ip-i-iw/4268-iw-2021-indigenous-data-sovereignty.html
Research Data Alliance International Indigenous Data Sovereignty Interest Group (2019). CARE Principles for Indigenous Data Governance.” The Global Indigenous Data Alliance. www.gida-global.org.
- Data Protection Authorities' Guidance
Office of the Victorian Information Commissioner (2021). Understanding Culturally Diverse Privacy – Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ perspectives. https://ovic.vic.gov.au/privacy/understanding-culturally-diverse-privacy-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-peoples-perspectives/
European Court of Human Rights
Sinan Işık v. Turkey (Second Section) 21924/05 2010 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-97087
- European Court of Human Rights
European Commission Subgroup on Equality Data (2021). Guidance note on the collection and use of equality data based on racial or ethnic origin https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/guidance_note_on_the_collection_and_use_of_equality_data_based_on_racial_or_ethnic_origin_final.pdf
Research Data Alliance COVID-19 Indigenous Data Working Group (2020). “Data sharing respecting Indigenous data sovereignty.” In RDA COVID-19 Working Group (2020). Recommendations and guidelines on data sharing. Research Data Alliance. https://doi.org/10.15497/rda00052