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Data Protection in Humanitarian Action



The International Observatory on Vulnerable People In data protection


Disclaimer: The resources are arranged per thematic sections to facilitate the consultation. However, we are aware of the intersections and overlaps thereof. And that AI is generating new categories outside the traditional ones. We are also aware that pre-identifying categories of vulnerable people in data processing is not possible, vulnerability being a largely contextual and elusive concept. We are not claiming to be exhaustive, but to initiate a discussion.

Do you have any suggestions as to how improve the repository? Have you come across any resource that should be included in the repository? Contact us.

Migrants, people on move & and non-citizens

- Academic writings

Achiume, E. (2021). Digital Racial Borders.  AJIL Unbound, 115, 333-338. https://doi:10.1017/aju.2021.52

Bircan, T., & Korkmaz, E. E. (2021). Big data for whose sake? Governing migration through artificial intelligence. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications8(1), 1-5.

Brouwer, E. (2020). Large-scale databases and interoperability in migration and border policies: The Non-Discriminatory Approach of Data Protection. European Public Law, 26(1), 92. https://doi.org/10.54648/euro2020005

González Fuster, G., & Gutwirth, S. (2011). When “Digital Borders” Meet “Surveilled Geographical Borders”: Why the Future of EU Border Management is a Problem. In P. Burgess & S. Gutwirth (Eds.), A Threat Against Europe? Security, Migration and Integration (pp. 171–190). VUBPRESS. http://works.bepress.com/serge_gutwirth/56/

Gugliotta, L., & Elbi, A. (2023, March). Will AI ‘subtly’ take over decision-making in the EU migration context? Warnings and lessons from ETIAS and VIS. In EULEN Conference on AI Systems and EU Law Enforcement-Between Effectiveness and the Rule of Law, Date: 2023/03/23-2023/03/24, Location: Toledo.

Hayes, B. (2017). Migration and data protection: Doing no harm in an age of mass displacement, mass surveillance and “big data”, International Review of the Red Cross 99, 179-209. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1816383117000637  

Molnar, P. (2022). Territorial and Digital Borders and Migrant Vulnerability Under a Pandemic Crisis. In: Triandafyllidou, A. (eds) Migration and Pandemics. IMISCOE Research Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-81210-2_3

Molnar, P. (2020). Technological Testing Grounds – Migration Management Experiments and Reflections from the Ground Up. https://edri.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Technological-Testing-Grounds.pdf

Meier, P. (2011). New Information Technologies and Their Impact on the Humanitarian Sector, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 93, No. 884, pp. 1239 – 1263 https://www.icrc.org/fr/doc/resources/international-review/review-884/review-884-all.pdf

Nalbandian, L. (2022). An eye for an ‘I:’a critical assessment of artificial intelligence tools in migration and asylum management. Comparative Migration Studies10(1), 1-23.

Quintel, T. (2018). Connecting Personal Data of Third Country Nationals: Interoperability of EU Databases in the Light of the CJEU’s Case Law on Data Retention. University of Luxembourg Law Working Paper, 2. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3132506

Stachowitsch, S., & Sachseder, J. (2019). The gendered and racialized politics of risk analysis. The case of Frontex. Critical Studies on Security, 7(2), 107–123. https://doi.org/10.1080/21624887.2019.1644050

- NGO Reports & Articles

Statewatch & PICUM. (2019). Data Protection, Immigration Enforcement and Fundamental Rights: What the EU’s Regulations on Interoperability Mean for People with Irregular Status https://www.statewatch.org/media/documents/analyses/Data-Protection-Immigration-Enforcement-and-Fundamental-Rights-Full-Report-EN.pdf

Access Now, European Digital Rights (EDRi), Migration and Technology Monitor, the Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants (PICUM) and Statewatch. (2021). Uses of AI in migration and border control: A fundamental rights approach to the Artificial Intelligence Act. https://edri.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Migration_2-pager-02052022-for-online.pdf

Naranjo, D., & Molnar, P. (2020) The Privatization of Migration Control. Retrieved from https://www.cigionline.org/articles/privatization-migration-control/

Open Rights Group (2020) Immigration, Data And Technology: Needs And Capacities Of The Immigration Sector https://www.openrightsgroup.org/app/uploads/2020/11/Immigration-Data-and-Technology-Needs-and-Capacities-of-the-Immigration-Sector.pdf

Privacy International (n/a). Protecting migrants at borders and beyond https://privacyinternational.org/protecting-migrants-borders-and-beyond

Rodelli, C. (2022). The EU AI Act: How to (truly) protect people on the move https://www.accessnow.org/eu-ai-act-migration/ 

- Data Protection Authorities' Guidance

- Laws

- Case Law

Court of Justice of the European Union

YS v. Minister voor Immigratie, Integratie en Asiel, and Minister voor Immigratie, Integratie en Asiel v M and S (Third Section) ECLI:EU:C:2014:2081 2014 https://curia.europa.eu/juris/document/document.jsf?docid=155114&doclang=EN


Open Rights Group & Anor, R  v. The Secretary of State for the Home Department & Anor Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Appeal No: C1/2019/2726/QBACF Neutral Citation Number: [2021] EWCA Civ 800 2021 https://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Civ/2021/800.html

- National

Open Rights Group & Anor, R  v. The Secretary of State for the Home Department & Anor Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Appeal No: C1/2019/2726/QBACF Neutral Citation Number: [2021] EWCA Civ 800 2021 https://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Civ/2021/800.html

- Policy documents

EMN-OECD (2022). The Use of Digitalisation and Artificial Intelligence in Migration Management. https://www.oecd.org/migration/mig/EMN-OECD-INFORM-FEB-2022-The-use-of-Digitalisation-and-AI-in-Migration-Management.pdfEuropean Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2018). Preventing unlawful profiling today and in the future: a guide. Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2811/801635

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2018). Under watchful eyes: biometrics, EU IT systems and fundamental rights. Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2811/29

ICRC Rules on Personal Data Protection https://shop.icrc.org/icrc-rules-on-personal-data-protection-pdf-en.html

Hennebry, J., H. KC and K. Williams, 2021. Gender and Migration Data: A Guide for Evidence-based, Gender-responsive Migration Governance. International Organization for Migration (IOM).  https://publications.iom.int/books/gender-and-migration-data-guide-evidence-based-gender-responsive-migration-governance

- Global Developments

Africa Migration Data Network (AMDN) https://gmdac.iom.int/africa-migration-data-network-amdn

Aljazeera (29 August 2022). In Cameroon, refugees get a new lease of life with digital IDs. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/8/29/in-cameroon-refugees-get-a-new-lease-of-life-with-digital-ids

- Others