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Summer Academy For Global Privacy Law 2022

Engineering the data regulation(s) in an age of reform


BPH Privacy & Data Protection

Doctoral Seminars


Visiting Scholars Programme


Meet the Author Series


Brussels Privacy Symposium


Data Protection In the World Series


Enforcing Europe Series 2


Data Sustainability Series


Ad-Hoc Events


Working Papers

Data Protection & Privacy


Workshop Summaries

From BPH Events




Data Protection in Humanitarian Action



The International Observatory on Vulnerable People In data protection


Disclaimer: The resources are arranged per thematic sections to facilitate the consultation. However, we are aware of the intersections and overlaps thereof. We are also aware that pre-identifying categories of vulnerable people in data processing is not possible, vulnerability being a largely contextual and elusive concept. We are not claiming to be exhaustive, but to initiate a discussion.

Do you have any suggestions as to how improve the repository? Have you come across any resource that should be included in the repository? Contact us.


- Academic writings

Abu-Laban, Y. (2015). Gendering Surveillance Studies: The Empirical and Normative Promise of Feminist Methodology, Surveillance & Society, 13(1), 44-56. https://doi.org/10.24908/ss.v13i1.5163  

Allen, A. L. (2000). Gender and Privacy in Cyberspace. Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law. 789. https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1788&context=faculty_scholarship

Bodin de Moraes, M. C. (2010). Vulnerabilidades nas relações de família: o problema da desigualdade de gênero. Cadernos da Escola Judicial do TRT da 4ª Região (2)3, 20-33. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12178/185767 

Buolamwini, J. and Gebru, T. (2018). Gender Shades. Intersectional Accuracy Disparities in Commercial Gender Classification, Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency (PMLR), 81, 77-91. https://proceedings.mlr.press/v81/buolamwini18a.html

Carter, L. (2021). Prescripted living: gender stereotypes and data-based surveillance in the UK welfare state. Internet Policy Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.4.1593

Hampton, L. M. (2021). Black Feminist Musings on Algorithmic Oppression, Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency. https://doi.org/10.1145/3442188.3445929

Criado-Perez, C. (2019). Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. https://carolinecriadoperez.com/book/invisible-women/

D’Ignazio, C., & Klein, L. F. (2019). Data Feminism. https://data-feminism.mitpress.mit.edu/

Malgieri, G., & Fuster, G.G. (2021). The Vulnerable Data Subject: A Gendered Data Subject? SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3913249

Jarrett, K. (2016). Feminism, labour and digital media: The digital housewife. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 9781315720111

Kadiri, A.P.L. (2021). Data and Afrofuturism: an emancipated subject?. Internet Policy Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.4.1597

Kang’ara, S., & King’ori, M. (2020). Data Protection & Privacy: A Gender Perspective. In KICTANet Policy Brief (Issue July). https://doi.org/10.5040/9780755620074.ch-011   

Khoo, C. et. al. (2019). Installing Fear A Canadian Legal and Policy Analysis of Using, Developing, and Selling Smartphone Spyware and Stalkerware Applications https://citizenlab.ca/2019/06/installing-fear-a-canadian-legal-and-policy-analysis-of-using-developing-and-selling-smartphone-spyware-and-stalkerware-applications/  

Ni Loideain, N. & Adams, R. (2018). From Alexa to Siri and the GDPR: The Gendering of Virtual Personal Assistants and the Role of EU Data Protection Law. King’s College London Dickson Poon School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3281807

McEwen, K.D. (2018). Self-Tracking Practices and Digital (Re)Productive Labour, Philosophy & Technology 31, 235-251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13347-017-0282-2

Parson, C. et al. (2019). The Predator in Your Pocket: A Multidisciplinary Assessment of the Stalkerware Application Industry. https://citizenlab.ca/docs/stalkerware-holistic.pdf

Peña, P. and Varon, J. (2019). Consent to our Data Bodies. Lessons from feminist theories to enforce data protection. Developed by Coding Rights. Available at: https://codingrights.org/docs/ConsentToOurDataBodies.pdf.

Siapka, A. & Biasin, E. (2021). Bleeding data: the case of fertility and menstruation tracking apps. Internet Policy Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.4.1599

Sørum, H., Eg, R., & Presthus, W. (2022). A Gender Perspective on GDPR and Information Privacy. Procedia Computer Science196, 175-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2021.12.003

Theilen, J. T. & Baur, A. & Bieker, F. & Ammicht Quinn, R. & Hansen, M. & González Fuster, G. (2021). Feminist data protection: an introduction. Internet Policy Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.4.1609

Weinberg, L. (2017). Rethinking Privacy: A Feminist Approach to Privacy Rights after Snowden. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, 12(3), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.16997/wpcc.258

Woods, H.S. (2018). Asking more of Siri and Alexa: feminine persona in service of surveillance capitalism. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 35, 334 – 349. DOI:10.1080/15295036.2018.1488082

- NGO Reports

ACLU (2022) In Big Win, Settlement Ensures Clearview AI Complies With Groundbreaking Illinois Biometric Privacy Law https://www.aclu-il.org/en/press-releases/big-win-settlement-ensures-clearview-ai-complies-groundbreaking-illinois-biometric

Privacy International (2022). Privacy and Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Post-Roe world. https://privacyinternational.org/long-read/4937/privacy-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-post-roe-world

- Data Protection Authorities' Guidance

- Laws

- Case Law

European Court of Human Rights

Avram and Others v. Moldova (Third Section) 41588/05 2011 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-105468

Khadija Ismayilova v. Azerbaijan (Fifth Section) 65286/13 and 57270/14) 2019 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-188993

Buturuga v. Romania (Fourth Section) 56867/15 2020 Official Language in French: https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-200842 Unofficial English Translation: In pp. 374-376 https://rm.coe.int/new-caselaw-06-2021/1680a2fc58

- Policy documents

UNESCO (2020). Artificial intelligence and gender equality: key findings of UNESCO’s Global Dialogue. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000374174

Amnesty International & Access Now (2018). The Toronto Declaration: Protecting the right to equality and non-discrimination in machine learning systems. https://www.torontodeclaration.org/community/creators/

Advisory Committee on equal opportunities for women and men (2020). Opinion on Intersectionality in Gender Equality Laws, Policies and Practices. https://ec.europa.eu/transparency/expert-groups-register/screen/expert-groups/consult?lang=en&groupID=1238

United Nations General Assembly Resolution (2018). The right to privacy in the digital age, https://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/73/179


- Global Developments

World Wide Web Foundation (2018) Artificial Intelligence: open questions about gender inclusion http://webfoundation.org/docs/2018/06/AI-Gender.pdf

522 Resolution on the Protection of Women Against Digital Violence in Africa – ACHPR/Res. 522 (LXXII) 2022 https://www.achpr.org/sessions/resolutions?id=558

3 October 2022. The Regional Harmonized and Standardized Data Collection Toolkit is critical in addressing Violence Against Women and Girls. https://au.int/en/pressreleases/20221003/regional-harmonized-and-standardized-data-collection-toolkit-critical

4 Octubre 2022. La AEPD y Mujeres en el Sector Público firman un protocolo para potenciar la presencia de la mujer en el entorno tecnológico. https://www.aepd.es/es/prensa-y-comunicacion/notas-de-prensa/aepd-y-mujeres-en-el-sector-publico-firman-protocolo 

- Others

Morrison, S. (2022). Should I delete my period app? And other post-Roe privacy questions. https://www.vox.com/recode/2022/7/6/23196809/period-apps-roe-dobbs-data-privacyabortion

Packer-Tursman, J. (2022). Concerns mount over accuracy of online abortion information, privacy of searches.: https://www.upi.com/Health_News/2022/07/01/Internet-abortioninformation-Internet-online/7831656609505/

Popli, N. & Bergengruen, V. (2022). Lawmakers Scramble to Reform Digital Privacy After Roe Reversal. https://time.com/6193224/abortion-privacy-data-reform/