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Summer Academy For Global Privacy Law 2022

Engineering the data regulation(s) in an age of reform


BPH Privacy & Data Protection

Doctoral Seminars


Visiting Scholars Programme


Meet the Author Series


Brussels Privacy Symposium


Data Protection In the World Series


Enforcing Europe Series 2


Data Sustainability Series


Ad-Hoc Events


Working Papers

Data Protection & Privacy


Workshop Summaries

From BPH Events




Data Protection in Humanitarian Action



The International Observatory on Vulnerable People In data protection


Disclaimer: The resources are arranged per thematic sections to facilitate the consultation. However, we are aware of the intersections and overlaps thereof. And that AI is generating new categories outside the traditional ones. We are also aware that pre-identifying categories of vulnerable people in data processing is not possible, vulnerability being a largely contextual and elusive concept. We are not claiming to be exhaustive, but to initiate a discussion.

Do you have any suggestions as to how improve the repository? Have you come across any resource that should be included in the repository? Contact us.


- Academic writings

Abu-Laban, Y. (2015). Gendering Surveillance Studies: The Empirical and Normative Promise of Feminist Methodology, Surveillance & Society, 13(1), 44-56. https://doi.org/10.24908/ss.v13i1.5163  

Acien, A., Morales, A., Vera-Rodriguez, R., Bartolome, I., & Fierrez, J. (2019). Measuring the gender and ethnicity bias in deep models for face recognition. In Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis, Computer Vision, and Applications: 23rd Iberoamerican Congress, CIARP 2018, Madrid, Spain, November 19-22, 2018, Proceedings 23 (pp. 584-593). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-13469-3_68

Adams, R., & Loideáin, N. N. (2019). Addressing indirect discrimination and gender stereotypes in AI virtual personal assistants: the role of international human rights law. Cambridge International Law Journal8(2), 241-257. https://doi.org/10.4337/cilj.2019.02.04

Allen, A. L. (2000). Gender and Privacy in Cyberspace. Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law. 789. https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1788&context=faculty_scholarship

Bodin de Moraes, M. C. (2010). Vulnerabilidades nas relações de família: o problema da desigualdade de gênero. Cadernos da Escola Judicial do TRT da 4ª Região (2)3, 20-33. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12178/185767 

Buolamwini, J. and Gebru, T. (2018). Gender Shades. Intersectional Accuracy Disparities in Commercial Gender Classification, Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency (PMLR), 81, 77-91. https://proceedings.mlr.press/v81/buolamwini18a.html

Büchi, M., Festic, N., Just, N., & Latzer, M. (2021). 20. Digital inequalities in online privacy protection: effects of age, education and gender. Handbook of digital inequality, 296.

Carter, L. (2021). Prescripted living: gender stereotypes and data-based surveillance in the UK welfare state. Internet Policy Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.4.1593

Criado-Perez, C. (2019). Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. https://carolinecriadoperez.com/book/invisible-women/

D’Ignazio, C., & Klein, L. F. (2019). Data Feminism. https://data-feminism.mitpress.mit.edu/

Foth, M. (2016). Factors influencing the intention to comply with data protection regulations in hospitals: based on gender differences in behaviour and deterrence. European Journal of Information Systems25(2), 91-109. https://doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2015.9

Hampton, L. M. (2021). Black Feminist Musings on Algorithmic Oppression, Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency. https://doi.org/10.1145/3442188.3445929

Hong, N. (2023). Toward Digital Polis: Gendered Data (In) Justice and Data Activism in South Korea. In Gated Communities and the Digital Polis: Rethinking Subjectivity, Reality, Exclusion, and Cooperation in an Urban Future (pp. 37-57). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.

Jarrett, K. (2016). Feminism, labour and digital media: The digital housewife. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 9781315720111

Kadiri, A.P.L. (2021). Data and Afrofuturism: an emancipated subject?. Internet Policy Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.4.1597

Kang’ara, S., & King’ori, M. (2020). Data Protection & Privacy: A Gender Perspective. In KICTANet Policy Brief (Issue July). https://doi.org/10.5040/9780755620074.ch-011   

Khoo, C. et. al. (2019). Installing Fear A Canadian Legal and Policy Analysis of Using, Developing, and Selling Smartphone Spyware and Stalkerware Applications https://citizenlab.ca/2019/06/installing-fear-a-canadian-legal-and-policy-analysis-of-using-developing-and-selling-smartphone-spyware-and-stalkerware-applications/  

Malgieri, G., & Gonzalez Fuster, G. (2022). The Vulnerable Data Subject: A Gendered Data Subject? European Journal of Law and Technology, 13(2).  https://ejlt.org/index.php/ejlt/article/view/843/1057

Ni Loideain, N. & Adams, R. (2018). From Alexa to Siri and the GDPR: The Gendering of Virtual Personal Assistants and the Role of EU Data Protection Law. King’s College London Dickson Poon School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3281807

McEwen, K.D. (2018). Self-Tracking Practices and Digital (Re)Productive Labour, Philosophy & Technology 31, 235-251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13347-017-0282-2

Parson, C. et al. (2019). The Predator in Your Pocket: A Multidisciplinary Assessment of the Stalkerware Application Industry. https://citizenlab.ca/docs/stalkerware-holistic.pdf

Peña, P. and Varon, J. (2019). Consent to our Data Bodies. Lessons from feminist theories to enforce data protection. Developed by Coding Rights. Available at: https://codingrights.org/docs/ConsentToOurDataBodies.pdf.

Siapka, A. & Biasin, E. (2021). Bleeding data: the case of fertility and menstruation tracking apps. Internet Policy Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.4.1599

Sørum, H., Eg, R., & Presthus, W. (2022). A Gender Perspective on GDPR and Information Privacy. Procedia Computer Science196, 175-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2021.12.003

Theilen, J. T. & Baur, A. & Bieker, F. & Ammicht Quinn, R. & Hansen, M. & González Fuster, G. (2021). Feminist data protection: an introduction. Internet Policy Review, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2021.4.1609

Weinberg, L. (2017). Rethinking Privacy: A Feminist Approach to Privacy Rights after Snowden. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture, 12(3), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.16997/wpcc.258

Woods, H.S. (2018). Asking more of Siri and Alexa: feminine persona in service of surveillance capitalism. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 35, 334 – 349. DOI:10.1080/15295036.2018.1488082

- NGO Reports

ACLU (2022) In Big Win, Settlement Ensures Clearview AI Complies With Groundbreaking Illinois Biometric Privacy Law https://www.aclu-il.org/en/press-releases/big-win-settlement-ensures-clearview-ai-complies-groundbreaking-illinois-biometric

Privacy International (2022). Privacy and Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Post-Roe world. https://privacyinternational.org/long-read/4937/privacy-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-post-roe-world

- Data Protection Authorities' Guidance

Belgian DPA decision No 4/2021. https://www.autoriteprotectiondonnees.be/publications/decision-quant-au-fond-n-04-2021.pdf 

EDPS. (2023) Opinion 2/2023 on the Proposals for Directives on standards for equality bodies in the field of equal treatment. https://edps.europa.eu/system/files/2023-02/23-02-02-opinion-on-standards-for-equality-bodies_en.pdf

- Laws

- Case Law

European Court of Human Rights

Avram and Others v. Moldova (Third Section) 41588/05 2011 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-105468

Khadija Ismayilova v. Azerbaijan (Fifth Section) 65286/13 and 57270/14) 2019 https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-188993

Buturuga v. Romania (Fourth Section) 56867/15 2020 Official Language in French: https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-200842 Unofficial English Translation: In pp. 374-376 https://rm.coe.int/new-caselaw-06-2021/1680a2fc58

- Policy documents

UNESCO (2020). Artificial intelligence and gender equality: key findings of UNESCO’s Global Dialogue. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000374174

Amnesty International & Access Now (2018). The Toronto Declaration: Protecting the right to equality and non-discrimination in machine learning systems. https://www.torontodeclaration.org/community/creators/

Advisory Committee on equal opportunities for women and men (2020). Opinion on Intersectionality in Gender Equality Laws, Policies and Practices. https://ec.europa.eu/transparency/expert-groups-register/screen/expert-groups/consult?lang=en&groupID=1238

United Nations General Assembly (2020). Resolution The right to privacy in the digital age – A/RES/75/176 . https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/3896430?ln=en



- Global Developments

World Wide Web Foundation (2018) Artificial Intelligence: open questions about gender inclusion http://webfoundation.org/docs/2018/06/AI-Gender.pdf

African Commission on Human and People’s Rights (2022). Resolution on the Protection of Women Against Digital Violence in Africa – ACHPR/Res. 522 (LXXII) 2022. https://www.achpr.org/sessions/resolutions?id=558

African Union (2022). The Regional Harmonized and Standardized Data Collection Toolkit is critical in addressing Violence Against Women and Girls. https://au.int/en/pressreleases/20221003/regional-harmonized-and-standardized-data-collection-toolkit-critical

4 Octubre 2022. La AEPD y Mujeres en el Sector Público firman un protocolo para potenciar la presencia de la mujer en el entorno tecnológico. https://www.aepd.es/es/prensa-y-comunicacion/notas-de-prensa/aepd-y-mujeres-en-el-sector-publico-firman-protocolo


- Others

Mauro, G. Shellmann, H. (2023) ‘There is no stardard’: investigation finds AI algorithms objectify women’s bodies.  https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2023/feb/08/biased-ai-algorithms-racy-women-bodies

Morrison, S. (2022). Should I delete my period app? And other post-Roe privacy questions. https://www.vox.com/recode/2022/7/6/23196809/period-apps-roe-dobbs-data-privacyabortion

Nguyen, S (2023). What is doxxing and what can you do if you are doxxed?. https://amp.cnn.com/cnn/2023/02/07/world/what-is-doxxing-explainer-as-equals-intl-cmd/index.html

Packer-Tursman, J. (2022). Concerns mount over accuracy of online abortion information, privacy of searches.: https://www.upi.com/Health_News/2022/07/01/Internet-abortioninformation-Internet-online/7831656609505/

Popli, N. & Bergengruen, V. (2022). Lawmakers Scramble to Reform Digital Privacy After Roe Reversal. https://time.com/6193224/abortion-privacy-data-reform/